Despite advances in the treatment of patients with early and metastatic breast cancer, mortality remains high due to intrinsic or acquired resistance to therapy.
Increased understanding of the genomic landscape through massively parallel sequencing has revealed somatic mutations common to specific subtypes of breast cancer, provided new prognostic and predictive markers, and highlighted potential therapeutic targets.
Increasingly, newer media, like video and digital photography, have become important, often as a way of documenting interventions or performances in the landscape.
Animal models are frequently used in the study of complex human diseases.
With the use of new technology and the availability of transgenic animals, molecular mechanisms of several diseases can be explored.
In order for an animal model to serve as a useful model for human disease, the modeled disease must be similar in etiology and function to the human equivalent.
Man-mouse xenografts have been widely used to assess the therapeutic effect of carcinostatic drugs on human malignant cells .